Everything You Must Know about Elections in India.

India is the world’s largest democratic nation withholding the world’s largest election.

Election means to elect, support or select a candidate. Considering the candidate has all the abilities to run a certain post.

Elections are used as a universal model of selecting a candidate in a democratic country.

As India has adopted its constitution based on various constitutions of other countries, the election is a normal procedure to select a candidate.

What is An Election?

An election is a formal decision-making process by a group of people, community, city or state which chooses an individual or party to hold public office or higher administrative position to govern a community, city, state or a country.

In simple words, It could be like choosing a group leader in a group of friends, or a class monitor or a group general secretary in college and many more.

The elections become serious when it is about the city, state and country.

Now let’s dive into understanding elections In India

  • India has a parliamentary system as defined by its constitution, with power distributed between the central government and the states.
  • Each State has a Chief Minister who is the leader of the party or political alliance that has won a majority in the regional elections known as State Assembly Elections.
  • Union Territories are governed by a person appointed by the President of India.
  • The President of India monitors the rule of law through their appointed governors in each State.
  • The President of India has the power to dissolve the existing State government if necessary, and a new election is conducted.

How many types of Elections are there in India?

Types of election in India

  • Members of the Parliament in Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha ( known As MP)
  • Members of State Legislative Assemblies (includes legislative assemblies of three union territories – Delhi, Puducherry and Jammu and Kashmir) ( Known as MLA)
  • Members of State Legislative Councils ( Known as MLC)
  • Members of local governance bodies (Municipal bodies and Panchayats) ( Known as Panchayat Elections)
  • By-election is held when a seat-holder of a particular constituent dies, resigns, or is disqualified.

5 Important Facts about General elections in Lok Sabha

  • Members of Lok Sabha are elected by being voted upon by all adult citizens of India.
  • Candidates who win the Lok Sabha elections are called ‘Member of Parliament’ and hold their seats for five years
  • Elections take place once in 5 years to elect 543 members for the Lok Sabha
  • The Lok Sabha Chambers of the Sansad Bhavan in New Delhi, is responsible for the creation of new laws, removing or improving the existing laws that affect all citizens of India.
  • The majority alliance decides and gives the prospective name for the position of the Prime Minister of India.

How many parties contested for Lok Sabha Elections?

  •  All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK)  
  •  Bharatiya Jana Sangh (BJS)   
  • Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)  
  • Communist Party of India (CPI)   
  • Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPM)   
  • Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam(DMK)   
  • Indian National Congress (INC)  
  •  Indian National Congress (Indira) INC(I)   
  • Janata Party (JP)   
  • Janata Party (Secular) JNP(S)   
  • Praja Socialist Party (PSP)   
  • Samajwadi Party (SP)   
  • Socialist Party (India) (SOC)   
  • Swatantra Party (SWA)   
  • Telugu Desam Party (TDP)   
  • YSR Congress Party (YSRCP)

Until the 2019 election, the above parties have contested the position of member of parliament.

5 Facts about State elections/ State Assembly (Vidhan Sabha) Elections

  • Members of the State Legislative Assembly ( MLA) are elected directly by voting, from a set of candidates who stand in their respective constituencies.
  • Candidates who win the State Legislative Assemblies elections are called ‘Member of Legislative Assembly (MLA)
  • They hold their seats for five years or until the body is dissolved by the Governor.
  • They participate in the creation of new laws, removing or improving the existing laws that affect all citizens living in that state.
  • The leader of the majority party/alliance takes oath as Chief Minister of the State.

The fact to note is General and state elections are the most important people to create and regulate laws.

The MPs and MLAs are directly elected by citizen voting.

The Rajya Sabha, also known as the Council of States, is the upper house of India’s Parliament. Candidates are not elected directly by the citizens, but by the Members of Legislative Assemblies

When an elected candidate to either the State Assembly Lok Sabha or Rajya Sabha leaves the office vacant before their term ends, a by-election is conducted to find a suitable replacement to fill the vacant position. It is often referred to in India as Bypolls.

5 Informed ways to choose the right candidate before voting

Now we have a basic clarity about how selecting an ideal candidate is important to form a good government and build a nation with opportunity and growth.

Here are the five things a citizen must do before casting a vote.

  1. Education of Candidate: Education plays as a mindset tool for every individual. There is no specific need for educational qualification specified for a candidate to apply for a position of MLA or MP, so as a citizen we must only vote for a candidate who has the highest educational qualification.
  2. Professional History: Just like every individual has to surpass different levels of duties to reach the highest level. We must check a candidate’s professional history. For example, if a candidate has worked in panchayats, taluk, district and city thus reaching the state. This way it will show their efficiency and interest in future development prospects.
  3. Voter Awareness Form: The election commission of India has a voters awareness form where there are many quizzes and information about the elections. They have mentioned the rights of voters and methods to access the right information.https://dst.gov.in/sites/default/files/VAF%20Resource%20Guide.pdf
  4. NOTA: Even if you don’t think that an ideal candidate is contesting the election, you must vote in the NOTA category. NOTA suggests that none of the above. In this case, if there are enough votes there is a possibility of re-election with new candidates.
  5. Misinformation: We must form a governing body with ideal candidates. Even if you feel a certain candidate is good or bad. Circulating false information or forming opinions about the candidates is not our duty. Let the candidate make enough efforts to earn his/her credibility. Acting PR to a certain Political party is unethical for a normal citizen.

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